12 Dez Maritime Border Agreement
Egypt also announced in May the signing of agreements with three foreign companies to seek oil and gas in the Red Sea for the first time, which experts see as one of the fruits of the signing of the agreement on the delimitation of maritime borders with Saudi Arabia. Areas of maritime borders are expressed in concentric borders around the coasts and have baselines.  On Thursday, Greece said it was ready to begin exploratory discussions as early as this month on the delimitation of its maritime zones with Turkey. In 2005, Greece and Egypt began negotiations on border delimitation. There were two options for delimitation: a mutually agreed negotiated and agreed limit and, if negotiations failed, the use of a third-party court or arbitration proceeding. Negotiations were extended and conducted in good faith, but the geographical characteristics of Greece and the presence of third countries such as Turkey in the area of delimitation constituted legal and political difficulties. Egypt has tried not to interfere in the Greek-Turkish conflict. According to Greek expert Syrigos, “Egypt`s position was simple: first agree a border with Turkey, then tell us with which we will sign.” In 2013, Turkey proposed a maritime delimitation with Egypt. Syrigos says the best solution would have been to refer the case to the ICJ. However, in accordance with UNCLOS Article 298, Greece and Egypt both declared, respectively, on 16 January 2015 and 16 February 2017 that they did not accept the procedures set out in Part XV, Section 2 (mandatory procedures that result in binding decisions) with respect to maritime disputes. A joint proposal to the ICJ had to be agreed. In all cases, a court proceeding lasts at least 4 to 5 years. In 2019, Turkey and Libya signed a Memorandum of Understanding (here) on the delimitation of the EEZ and the continental shelf.
“Egypt was not able to launch oil and gas exploration offers before these agreements were signed, as this could lead to border disputes and huge financial losses for companies,” the expert said. “The signing of agreements to demarcate maritime borders brings many economic benefits to Egypt as part of improving its oil and gas resources,” Medhat Youssef, an oil expert, told Xinhua. Through the agreement, he said, Egypt has sent messages to many parties, especially investors who want to invest in the region. The preamble to the agreement between Greece and Egypt recognizes the relevance and applicability of the Charter of the United Nations and UNCLOS. It refers in particular to the principles of good neighbourliness, cooperation and good faith. The preamble stresses that each party must exercise its prerogatives and jurisdictions in accordance with UNCLOS, which includes Greece and Egypt. UNCLOS provides that an international agreement between the States concerned is the main method of delimiting maritime borders, including the EEZ and the continental shelf (Article 74, paragraph 1, and Article 83, paragraph 1). UNCLOS does not define a method of border determination, but only that delimitation results in a “just solution.” A delimitation contract negotiated and agreed upon is, by definition, in accordance with international law under Article 74, paragraph 1, and Article 83, paragraph 1, of the UNCLOS. The review of maritime border treaties is important as: a) as a source of general or individual international law; (b) as evidence of existing customary law; and (c) as evidence of the changing habit that is emerging.  The development of “customary law” concerns all nations. The map on the right shows the different maritime borders of the two Koreas.
The limits of these limits overlap overlap with overlapping jurisdictional requirements.  Explicit differences in the template configuration are displayed in the map on the right. “There is no maritime border between Greece and Egypt,” the statement said.