19 Dez Trade Agreements Kazakhstan
Overall, It is estimated that Kazakhstan`s accession to the WTO would increase by 3.7% of Kazakhstan`s GDP in the medium term and 9.7% in the long term (with heterogeneity in all sectors of the economy).3 Opening up FDI services should, by far, have the greatest impact on the Kazakh economy (more than two thirds of total profits) (Chart 6.1). It`s discussed first. While the impact of customs reform is expected to be small, the positive effects of common WTO rules on the stability and predictability of Kazakhstan`s customs regulations (i.e. customs obligations, customs assessment rules, etc.) can be significant and will also be discussed in this section. In some other areas, further reforms, which go well beyond the country`s current WTO commitments, will be needed to help significantly reduce trade costs for businesses. This includes trade facilitation and other reforms aimed at reducing barriers to trade at borders and beyond, whether by changing the internal regulatory process and strengthening cooperation with trading partners. Finally, investments in the physical infrastructure of trade (roads, railways, etc.), including increased participation of private sector infrastructure, will also play an important role. In addition to improvements in trade facilitation. B, it will be essential to phase out other non-tariff barriers (e.g., excessively restrictive technical regulations or opaque licensing requirements) and to improve the overall quality and predictability of the regulatory environment for business activities, in order to increase business opportunities for Kazakh companies and make Kazakhstan a more attractive investment target. For example, a recent UNECE survey (2014) shows that on average 30% of Kazakhstan`s importers and exporters are affected by NB and that, in some sectors, they significantly extend the time it takes to import and export.28 As Kazakhstan aims to diversify its petroleum products trading structure to goods and services that may be subject to higher regulatory requirements (such as agri-food or industrial products).
, the drinking position is considerably extended. The opening of negotiations with its major trading partners – at the EAEU level, but also beyond – on a gradual reduction or NB will be an important aspect to reduce business costs for businesses. Kazakhstan`s trade policy is another important policy area that influences its ability to attract foreign investors. Trade policy has a direct influence on countries` investment climate, as it influences the relative prices of inputs and finished products of companies sold in Switzerland and abroad. This trend has been exacerbated by the spread of global value chains, where different levels of production are dispersed across borders and depend on effective trade relations and cross-border coordination.