21 Dez What Was The Agreement That Came From The Talks In Westphalia
This contrasted with the way in which Spain and Portugal had asked the Pope to resolve a political issue, to pass on their contract of Tordesillas in 1494 after the travels of Christopher Columbus, essentially to divide the world. The emperor and pope`s claims of authority were clearly not at the centre of this procedure, so what new order emerged? Joachim Whaley, an eminent English-speaking historian of the Holy Roman Empire, said that later commentators such as Leibniz, Rousseau, Kant and Schiller hailed the peace of Westphalia as a first step towards universal peace, but stressed that “their projections of the future should not be confused with descriptions of reality.”  The first six months were spent arguing over who should sit where and who should go to a room in front of whom. The main French and Spanish emissaries never managed to meet because it was not possible to agree on the right protocol. A special postal system processed letters between the envoys and their sponsors at a time when it took ten days or more to send a message from Munster to Paris or Vienna and twenty days or more to Stockholm or Madrid. Deals were slowly hammered. It took nearly three weeks for the signing ceremony, which began on the afternoon of Saturday, October 24, 1648, at 2 p.m. Several territorial adjustments have also been made by the peace colonies. For example, Switzerland`s independence from the Empire has been formally recognized. France came out of the war in a much better position than any other participant.
France retained control of the dioceses of Metz, Toul and Verdun, near Lorraine, received the cities of the Decapolis in Alsace and the city of Pignerol, near the Spanish Duchy of Milan. Sweden received the Vorpommern, Wismar and the princely bishops of Bremen and De Verden as hereditary fiefdoms, thus winning a seat and a vote in the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire. Trade and trade barriers put in place during the war were also removed and a certain degree of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine. The Westf-lische Friede was the signing of two peace agreements signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabruck and Munster. They ended the Thirty Years` War and brought peace to the Holy Roman Empire and ended a disastrous period in European history that claimed the lives of some eight million people.  Sweden preferred to negotiate with the Holy Roman Empire of Osnabruck, which was controlled by Protestant troops. Osnabruck was a two-faith Lutheran and Catholic city with two Lutheran churches and two Catholic churches. The city council was exclusively Lutheran, and citizens mostly so, but the city also housed the Catholic chapter of the archdiocese of Osnabruck and had many other Catholic inhabitants. From 1628 to 1633, Osnabruck had been enslaved by the troops of the Catholic Federation, then taken by Lutheran Sweden.  Articles V and VII of the IPO concern religious rights in the Empire (IPM, No. 47). Article V stipulates that the Passau Treaty of 1552 and the religious peace of Augsburg of 1555 must be respected.
This meant that Catholic and Protestant religions (Lutherans and Calvinists) were recognized as equals and that princes could choose a religion for their territory and force their subjects to correspond to their religion (cuius regio eius religio).